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chse Chemistry 1st year Syllabus 2021-21

                Revised Syllabus For The session 2020-21

                                               CHEMISTRY

                                    for 1st year Science

Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Atomic and molecular masses and equivalent mass of elements, acid, base, andsalt,oxidants,reductants, and mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition,empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations basedon stoichiometry, expression of concentration of solutions.

Unit II: Structure of Atom

Atomic number, isotopes, isobars, Rutherford’s model and its limitations, Bohr’s model andits limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’srelationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers,shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli’sexclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filledand fully filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties ofelements – atomic radii ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,electronegativity, valency and oxidation state. Nomenclature of elements with atomicnumber greater than 100.

Unit IV : Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polarcharacter of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory,resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization,involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some molecules, molecular orbital theory ofhomonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit V : States of Matter  Gases and Liquids

Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles law, GayLussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation,Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour liquefaction of gases,critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea).

Unit VI : Chemical Thermodynamics

Concepts of System and surroundings and types of system, surroundings, work, heat, energy,extensive and intensive properties, state functions.First law of thermodynamics – Internal energy and enthalpy. Hess’s law of constant heatsummation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, neutralization,atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution, Second law of Thermodynamics (brief introduction). Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb’senergy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.Third law of thermodynamics (Statement only).

Unit VII : Equilibrium

Equlibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equlibrium, law of massaction, equilibrium constant (Kc, Kp and Kx and their relationship), factors affectingequilibrium, Le- Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium, ionization of acids and bases, strongand weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of PH, hydrolysis of salts (elementaryidea), buffer solution, Henderson Equation, solubility, product, common ion effect (withillustrative examples) numerical problems.

Unit VIII : Redox Reaction

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redoxreactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number.

Unit IX : Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties anduses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical propertiesof water, heavy water and use of hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X : s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 ElementsGeneral introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous, properties of thefirst element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (suchas ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen andhalogens, uses.

Unit XI : Some p- Block ElementsGeneral Introduction to p- Block Elements

Group 13 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation ofproperties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of firstelement of the group, Boron – physical and chemical properties.Group 14 Elements : General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation ofproperties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of firstelements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses ofsome important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon, Silicones, Zeolites andtheir uses.

Unit XII : Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Technique

General introduction, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.Electronic displacements in a covalent bond, inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonanceand hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond free radicals,carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Unit XIII : Hydrocarbons

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons :Page 2 of 7Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism,Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), methods of preparationfrom unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, carboxylic acids (Decarboxylation and Kolbeselectrolytic method), physical properties, chemical reactions: including free radicalmechanism of halogenation, combustion, controlled oxidation, isomerisation, aromatisation,with steam and pyrolysis.Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism,methods of preparation from alkynes, alkyl halides, vicinal dihalides, alcohols, physicalproperties, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides,sulphuric acid (Markownikoff’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,polymerisation and mechanism of electrophilic addition reaction.Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), methods of preparation, fromcalcium carbide, vicinal dihalides, physical properties, chemical reactions : acidic character ofalkynes, addition of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, water, and polymerisation.Aromatic Hydrocarbons : Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene : resonance,aromaticity, preparation of benzene from acetylene, phenol and aromatic acids, chemicalproperties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution, nitration, sulphonation, halogenation,Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, addition of hydrogen, addition of chlorine,combustion.

chse Chemistry 1st year Syllabus 2021-21

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chse Chemistry 2nd year Syllabus 2021-21