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chse Chemistry 2nd year Syllabus 2021-21

                      Revised Syllabus For The session 2020-21

                                                    CHEMISTRY

                                         for 2nd year Science

Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent andmetallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in twodimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing insolids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, pointdefects.

Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties, relativelowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezingpoint, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties,Abnormal colligative properties (Preliminary idea only).

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Electrolytes and non-electrolyte conductor, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specificand molar conductivity, variation of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law,electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell electrolytic cells and Galvaniccells, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application tochemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction:concentration, temperature, catalyst, order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law andspecific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first orderreactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment),Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases onsolids, catalysts, colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension;lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids;Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion – types ofemulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolyticmethod and refining.

Unit VII: p – Block Elements

Group15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidationstates, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses;compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia, oxides of nitrogen(Structure only); Phosphorus – allotropic forms.

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Propertiesand uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphur allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur:Preparation properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, properties and uses;oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparationproperties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids ofhalogens (structure only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends inphysical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transitionmetals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character,ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magneticproperties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magneticproperties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds.Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT and CFT.

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, preparation from alcohols, halogenationsof alkanes, alkenes, Sandmeyer’s reaction, halogen exchange reaction, physical propertiesand chemical properties, nucleophilic substitution reactions (unimolecular and bimolecular),stereochemical effect of substitution reaction, elimination reaction, Electrophilic substitutionreactions (halogenations, nitration, sulphonation), Friedel-Crafts reaction, reaction withmetals (Wurtz Fittig and Fittig reaction), optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C – X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen inmonosubstituted compounds only.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, from alkenes, carbonyl compounds,Grignard reagent, physical properties and chemical properties (of primary alcoholsonly),esterification, reaction with (hydrogen halide, phosphorus trihalide Oxidation(identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols mechanism of dehydration).

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acid,diazonium salt, cumene, physical properties and chemical properties, acidic nature ofphenol, esterification, Electrophilic aromatic substitution (halogenations, nitration) ReimerTiemann reaction, reaction with Zn dust, oxidation.

Eithers :Nomenclature, methods of preparation dehydration of alcohols, Williamsonsynthesis, physical properties and chemical properties, formation of alcohols, Electrophilicsubstitution ( halogenations, nitration, Friedel-Craft reaction.

Unit XII : Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature nature of carbonyl group methods of preparation,from alcohols (oxidation and dehydrogenation), ozonolysis of alkenes, hydration of alkynes,preparation of ketones from acyl chlorides and nitriles, preparation of acetone by FriedelCraft acylation reaction, physical properties and chemical properties, nucleophillic additionreaction with hydrogen cyanide, sodiumhydrogen sulphite, reaction with NH3 and NH2-Gcompounds (Hydrazine, hydroxyl amine, semicarbazide, phenyl hydrazine, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine), alcohol, Grignard reagent, Clemmensen reaction, Wolff-Kishner reduction,Fehling’s Test, Tollen’s Test, haloform reaction, Aldol condensation, Cannizzaro’s reaction,special reaction of (formaldehyde with ammonia and acetone with concentrated sulphuricacid), Electrophilic substitution reactions of aromatic aldehydes and ketones.

Carboxylic Acids : Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, from primaryalcohols, aldehydes, anhydrides, esters, nitriles and Grignard reagent, preparation of benzoicacid from toluene and benzanilide, physical properties, chemical properties, reaction with(metals, alkalies, PCl3, PCl5, SOCl2, NH3), formation of anhydride, esterification, reduction,decarboxylation, Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction. Substitution reaction of benzoic acid(nitration, bromination)

Unit XIII : Organic compunds containing Nitrogen

Amines : Nomenclature classification, structure, methods of preparation, reduction of(nitrocompounds, nitriles, amides) amonolysis of alkyl halides, Hoffmann bromamidedegradation, Gabriel phthalamide synthesis. Physical properties and chemical proporties,basic character of amines, alkylation, acylation, carbylamines reaction, identification ofprimary, secondary and teritary amines (reaction with nitrous acid and arylsulphonylchloride). Electrophilic substitution reactions of aniline (nitration, sulphonation,bromination). Cyanide and Isocyanides-will be mentioned at relevant places in context.

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification-Natural and synthetic methods of polymerization(addition andcondensation)co polymerization, some important polymers, natural and synthetic likepolythene, nylon, polyester, bakelite, rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradablepolymers.

Unit XVI : Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemical in Medicines- Angesics, traqulizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,antifungal, drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.Cleansing agents – Soap & detergents, cleansing action

                                 CHEMISTRY (PRACTICAL)

1. Crystallisation

a) Preparation of Mohr’s Salt (FeSO4, (NH4)2SO4, 6H2O] crystal

b) Preparation of potash alum [K2Al2(SO4)3, 24H2O] crystal

2. QuantitativeAnalysis :

Double titration : Two experiments to be done – i) one acid two alkalis double titration and

ii) two acids one alkali double titration.

3. Qualitative Inorganic Analysis :

Wet tests for basic radicals : Wet tests for the following basic radicals be done.

Group-I basic radicals : Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+

Group-II basic radicals : Hg2+, Cu2+, Bi3+, As3+, Sb3+, Sn2+ & Sn4+

Group-IIIA basic radicals : Fe3+, Al3+ & Cr3+

Group-IIIB basic radicals : Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ & Mn2+.

Group-IV basic radicals : Ba2+, Ca2+ & Sr2+.

Group-V basic radicals : NH4+, Mg2+, K+, Na+.Identification of unknown basic radicals.

[For Identification of unknown basic radicals both dry and wet tests are to be performed]

QUESTION PATTERN AND MARKS DISTRIBUTIONCHEMISTRY (PRACTICAL)

Full Mark : 30 Time : 3 Hrs1. 

Salt analysis (Identification of basic radical only) 10 marks

Dry Test — 04 mark

Wet Test — 06 mark

2. Crystallisation / Double Titration — 10 marks

3. Viva-Voce – – 06 marks

4. Record – – 04 marks

chse Chemistry 1st year Syllabus 2021-21

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chse Chemistry 1st year Syllabus 2021-21

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